Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Supply Chain for Audi Essay Example for Free

Gracefully Chain for Audi Essay Gracefully Chain Research Submitted by Ahmed El-Barky Outlines (Topic 1) 12345Activities. Market and contenders. Gracefully chain structure. SWOT investigation. References. 1-Activities for Audi. Audi is perhaps the best vehicle on the planet. First and foremost I will discuss Audi’s exercises. Above all else we as a whole realize the Audi is a German maker of Cars. Creating a ton of sorts of vehicles beginning from Supermini to SUV vehicles in various costs with various classifications. Audi is a brand from the gathering of Volkswagen. The organization itself situated in Ingolstadt, Germany The Company name originates from the author name Who August Horch, His sir name implies (Listen) in Germany and when you make an interpretation of it into Latin it becomes Audi. 2-Audi Competitors. One of the greatest contender towards Audi is BMW and obviously the opposition between Audi A4 and BMW 3 arrangement. Also, BMW X Series and Audi Q7. Other contender is Mercedes and they are rivaling Audi A2 and Mercedes A class. 3-Supply Chain Design. Client 4-SWOT Analysis. - Strengths Audis Brand. Audi is one of the most important vehicles in vehicles industry. The situating of this vehicle is truly elevated for the client they position it as high renown as indicated by the plan and the style. - Strong income Company activities during the period 2003-2006. The organization expanded its income by 16% . as indicated by that the money comparable increments from 1,207. 5million Euro to 4,884million. This is quality on the grounds that with solid money that will assist the organization with achieving its arrangements. Shortcomings Focusing just on Germany 70. 5% of the income for this organization originated from Germany Market. That will influence the organization income in such a case that the economy in Germany isn't developing or deals in Germany isn't working out positively. Or on the other hand the opposition here gets higher. Limited quantity of creation Audi has a modest quantity of creation as per its Competitors for Example BMW delivered 1. 1 million units and Mercedes 1. 2 million unit and for Audi around the same time it was 0. 9 Million unit that will influence the income of the organization. ecause around the same time the incomes for BMW was 48,999 million Euro and for Audi it was 31,142 million Euro around the same time. Openings Sales in China is the third world’s biggest vehicle advertise after US and Japan. China desires are that it will be the world big gest in 2015. Audi is the chines showcase since 1988 and it speaks to 10% from the entire market. Audi got back in the chines showcase in 2006 by Audi A6 altered motor. Russian market. Russia is one of the quickly developing vehicle showcases on the planet. The yearly development was 30% in 2006 contrasted with 2005. Accourding to those changing Audi is setting itself up to contend in this market toss an enormous net of vendors and satellite help workshops in Russia. Center East Market The Arab Gulf Area is one of the most significant regions for extravagance vehicles. A large number of car businesses begin to build up their own manufacturing plants there. The extravagance vehicle Is relied upon to become 20% for the following 3 years. Towards that the organization began to contribute a great deal for the extravagance vehicles there like Audi Q7. Dangers Material costs Cost of the crude material, for example, aluminum and other for this industry is rising. That will influence the organization in light of the fact that the costs will be higher and that will build the opposition for the Japanese organizations. Economy in Eurozone 90% from the income for Audi originates from Eurozone advertise and the euro economy is declining so it’s too difficult to even think about getting the objective income in this market as it were.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Napoleon Bonaparte essays

Napoleon Bonaparte papers On December 2, 1804 the flattery, swarm beguiling Napoleon Bonaparte was delegated sovereign of France. The Revolution simply finding some conclusion, left mass confusion and turmoil all through the country. The individuals not, at this point thought about the little opportunity they had picked up from the bleeding upset. They were eager to choose a ruler all together for quiet the confusion stricken nation. They casted a ballot overwhelmingly for Napoleon being delegated sovereign 3,572, 329 to 2,569. It didn't take long for the new ruler to start putting on a show of sovereignty. Not long after his political decision he even started marking archives with just his first beginning as pioneers of the past had. Napoleon started his standard such that stunned all who that went to the royal celebration. So as to show everybody that he was not the slightest bit under anothers authority, he took the crown and put it on his own head. This genuinely short, egotistical looking man was said to have a sort of air about him that requested submission and regard. The men that served nearest to him asserted he had a fire in his profound set eyes. He was an offspring of karma, as some would state. He was consistently at the correct spot in the perfect time. In ten years, he developed from a unimportant officer to the sovereign. En route his military virtuoso was found. In 1796, Napoleon, as the leader of his military, assumed responsibility for Italy for the French. The youthful authority walked into Italy saying People of Italy! The French Army comes to break your chains! (Carroll 49) They were not; in any case, thoroughly free. They had to make good on duties and gracefully men for military obligation. France had the extraordinary masterpieces and writing transported off to Paris where they were put away in galleries. Napoleon had started to scale the mass of popularity. In Paris; be that as it may, many accepted the war was in unable hands. For instance, many French urban areas were encountering food deficiencies, and like consistently, the man in control was accused. Individuals additionally started yearning for a solid head t... <! Napoleon Bonaparte articles Soon after the French Revolution one of the best military personalities to ever walk the planet, well... strolled the planet. Napoleon was one of the best military personalities throughout the entire existence of fighting. He extended the victories of France from her progressive outskirts to that of an Empire that extended from Spain to the steppes of Russia.(Dean) This was an incredible thing for France, be that as it may, every beneficial thing must reach a conclusion. Napoleon was conceived in 1769 to Carlo Maria and Letizia Maria Ramolino di Buonaparte. He had seven siblings and sisters (Kerekes). His folks were in the higher classes of Corsican culture. He had been named after an Egyptian strict figure (Bloom). As a kid he a was touchy child. He would wrestle and battle with his more established sibling and frequently win. He began tutoring at a youthful age. While in school he held his irritability, ...Napoleon would pursue the crook and battle him.(Bloom) One of his most loved subjects was number juggling. He exceeded expectations at it, and he especially delighted in doing it. He saved this enthusiasm for a long time, along these lines discovering him a spot in the French Artillery. His affection for arithmetic made him become an ordnance official in the French armed force for the points of direction, weight of shot, and measure of powder utilized when discharging at different separations require a total comprehension of mathematics.(Bloom) With him having such a searing temper, the military was the ideal spot for him. He had the option to utilize his agression for a reason. At 16 years old he was elevated to second Lieutenant. Presently, he got associated with the Corsican freedom development. The pioneer of this development was Pasquale Paoli (Napoleon I). Following quite a long while however, Paoli lost his thankfulness toward Napoleon, and he needed to come back to France. Once back in the French military, he participated in the attack of Toulon (Napoleon I&... <! Napoleon Bonaparte expositions Who might have ever anticipated that by the 1800s a youthful lieutenant, who was scarcely French, would be ace of France (Maurois 5)? Napoleon Bonaparte was a military virtuoso who won numerous wars and fights for France. Napoleon Bonaparte hugy affected the entirety of France and various different nations around Europe. He had numerous extraordinary achievements, two of which were his situations as First Consul and Emperor. Napoleon was a military virtuoso, known for the entirety of his numerous victories on the war zone. He started his vocation in the military as a big guns official (Weidhorn 16). In 1793, Napoleon got the title of Lieutenant colonel. He felt that his capacity expected to tried, and he substantiated himself well in a fight against the British Napoleon got the situation of authority of all soldiers in Paris (Weidhorn 21-24). Because of his triumphs as the authority, he was then given the title of president of the Army of the Interior (Wiedhorn26). Napoleon started accumulating triumphs left and right. He won six fights against Austria, including the skirmish of Lodi in 1796 and the clash of Ravoli in 1797 (Weidhorn). Napoleon turned into the main representative when the department was built up in the time of 1799. Napoleon tried decision as a regular citizen, yet he was more tyrant than Louis XVI (Columbia). He did numerous things while he was emissary, one of which was setting up the Bank of France. With the Concordat of 1801, the outcome was harmony with the Roman Catholic Church. The Concordat restored status and church solidarity, insofar as consequently the congregation needed to give the common specialists stricter accommodation. The following thing Napoleon did was he finished the subsequent alliance. This achievement occurred through the settlement of Luneville in 1801 with Austria and the bargain of Amiens in 1802 with Great Britain. Along these lines, France got central on the mainland... <! Napoleon Bonaparte papers Napoleon Bonaparte was conceived on August 15, 1767, in Ajaccio, Corsica. He was the child of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte. He had 7brothers and sisters. They were a respectable family. As a kid, Napoleon was combative, had his very own brain, and had a huge head. From his soonest youth he needed to turn into a fighter. At 10 years old his dad sent him to military school in France.Napoleon then went to Ecole Military School in Paris. While in school he got the moniker Minimal Corporal, which stayed with him through life. He completed his preparation, as gunnery man and official; he joined the French armed force when he was 16 years of age. Not long after that his dad kicked the bucket and he was left with the duty of dealing with his family. The French government was toppled on August 10, 1792, Napoleon chose to make his climb in positions. After this, Napoleon began turning into a perceived official. In 1793 he was made a chief in the military and around the same time he told the ordnance that constrained British to pull back from the Mediterranean port of Toulon. He later was made a brigadier general. After two years in Paris, Napoleon was requested to set down an uprising against the administration. He took a power of men and requested them to discharge a whiff of grapeshot into the group. They murdered hundred people, and the uprising was finished. On March 9, 1796 Napoleon wedded Josephine de Beauharnais, a widow of a French Nobleman, with whom she had two youngsters. Two days after his marriage Napoleon, at 26 years old, left for Italy to lead a French armed force and prevailed upon a progression of triumphs Austrian and Italian militaries. At this point France controlled a large portion of Italy. He demonstrated himself to be a splendid warrior who could motivate his soldiers with his own energy and make them ready to bite the dust for him. Likewise he indicated that he was a fruitful ambassador, since he arranged a settlement of harmony, despite the fact that he had been advised not to do as such by his governme... <! Napoleon Bonaparte articles Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821 C.E.) was conceived during the hour of the French Revolution, which at last influenced his objectives and possible initiative of France. Napoleon guided numerous effective battles to extend the domain and partners of France from 1796-1812 C.E. His intentions were dubious, did he need to carry harmony to France or addition extreme force? Napoleon Bonaparte was a definitive leader of the French Revolution who needed total force with numerous objectives set to grow the French domain. Napoleon was not only an offspring of the French Revolution, he was the French Revolution. His control of the French military from 1796-1812 was unrivaled at his time. Napoleon came into power when he turned into a general in King Louis XVIs armed force at the youthful age of 24. He was a firm supporter of the upheaval and upheld the Directory during a famous uprising in 1795. In his originally set of military battles from 1796-1797 C.E., Napoleon drove the Austrian armed force from northern Italy and made French principle there. His subsequent endeavor was not as effective as in 1798 C.E. he endeavored to access the Red Sea and compromise British control of the ocean course to India by catching Egypt. This crusade brought about all out British triumph. Napoleon at that point came back to France in 1799 when Austria, Russia and Britain united to cut down France and end the insurgency. Notwithstanding, Napoleon would not let this occur as he ousted the Directory and initiated another constitution which gave him practically complete capacity to run France for a long time. In 1804, Napoleon named himself head. The undeniable most noteworthy general of his time, Napoleons armed force vanquished the Italian and Iberian landmasses, the Netherlands, and Austrian and Prussian powers. In the wake of driving them to be partners, Napoleon sent his family members to run the nations he caught. By and by, a similar aspiration that helped the Napoleonic Empire of France develop, additionally prompted its decline.... <! Napoleon Bonaparte articles were Carlo and Napoleon Bonaparte was conceived

Sunday, August 16, 2020

Sounds of Summer

Sounds of Summer Howdy homies! Has it really been over a year since I posted this? Holy giggles it has! Now I dont know about you beautiful folks, but I still have four glorious days of summer break left, so I will continue to unapologetically blast some 90s Mariah Carey in my car, but if her jamz dont float your boat, here are some other tunes Ive been playing this summer. Warning: They are mostly borderline-saccherinely peppy songs. Tallulah by Company of Thieves  This is the kind of song that you enthusiastically sing along to alone in the car at 7 in the morning and other drivers stare at you but its like, I AINT EVEN MAD because youre in such a good mood. This is completely uncharacteristic of the rest of their material, just sos ya knows. The Walk by Mayer Hawthorne  This is the kind of song that you play in your head as you walk around like a badass until you realize that you are really just knocking over the displays at the Gap. Warning: hes got a lil bit of a potty-mouth in this video, sorry. New York City by Punch Brothers This is the kind of song you listen to after your little brother has insisted on listening to Owl City and Train for the last hour and youve forgotten what real music sounds like. Doo Wop (That Thing) by Lauryn Hill  This is the kind of song that makes you lament the state of current popular female hip-hop artists. This is also the kind of song that makes you want to go back to the 90s. Also, it is mandatory to shout out RESPECT IS JUST THE MINIMUM along with her. Written in Reverse by Spoon This is the kind of song that you Elaine-dance to. When I was in 7th grade, I listened to Celine Dion, Shania Twain, and Spoon. This was also when I was obsessed with becoming a herpetologist/entomologist/Jeff Corwin. I just want you to imagine pre-teen me for a second. Are you done laughing? A Change is Gonna Come cover by Ben Sollee This is the kind of song where you really admire all aspects of the artists musicianship but then get totally distracted by the drummer because he looks exactly like Luke Skywalker. Winter Ghosts by JBM This is the kind of song that you play when its been over a 100 degrees for weeks and your state has been in a drought all summer actually no, its mainly for when you want to sway back and forth like a sad hipster kid because you are wearing cut-off shorts and havent showered in a while. Help Yourself by Amy Winehouse This is the kind of song you put on a blog post to see if anyone knows where you can buy it. She never released it in the US. :( Shipping Up to Boston by Dropkick Murphys This is the kind of song you play as youre getting ready to head back to the Tute, because, well, nevermind. I dont have to justify Dropkick Murphys. Rite of Spring by Stravinsky This is the kind of piece you listen to on repeat because MITSO is playing it this year and you have no idea how to play it! Welp What have you guys been listening to lately?

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Commonly Confused Words Inhuman and Inhumane

The adjectives inhuman and inhumane have related meanings, but theyre not usually  interchangeable. Definitions The word inhuman—like inhumane—means  pitiless or lacking in compassion, but inhuman, which also means cruel,  monstrous,  and barbaric, has a harsher sense than inhumane.The Oxford English Dictionary defines inhumane as destitute of compassion for misery or suffering in men or animals.   Examples For an instant Sean saw an inhuman expression of hate so evil and demented that nothing in the world could frighten the boy after seeing that.(Raymond Feist, Faerie Tale. Doubleday, 1988)In tormented English [Oskar] conveyed his intense and everlasting hatred of the Nazis for destroying his career, uprooting his life, and flinging him like a piece of bleeding meat to hawks. He cursed them thickly, the German nation, as an inhuman, conscienceless, merciless people. (Bernard Malamud, The German Refugee.  The Stories of Bernard Malamud. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989)Inhumane treatment of political prisoners is considered a serious and punishable offense under international law.Some people always choose to  comfort the child. They think that making a baby cry it out is inhumane and could even lead to psychological problems. Others feel that giving in to babies prevents them from learning needed skills and leads to later problems. (Aaron E. Carroll, Putting Your Baby to Sleep: Some Advice and Good News. The New York Times, August 1, 2016) Usage Notes Careful users maintain the distinction between inhuman and inhumane. Inhumane, the opposite of humane, means lacking in compassion or kindness; cruel; not merciful: inhumane treatment. Inhuman, the opposite of human, is stronger and has a wider scope than inhumane. To be inhuman means to lack all human qualities, not only compassion and kindness: inhuman violence, inhuman living conditions. Inhuman has the additional meaning of not having human form: An inhuman shape appeared at the window. (Martin Manser, Good Word Guide, 7th ed. Bloomsbury, 2011)The first thing to note about inhuman is that it does not mean the same as inhumane. The confusion is very common. On February 17, 2008, a fine op-ed piece by an Air Force Colonel and former  Guantà ¡namo  prosecutor on the use of waterboarding was subbed by The New York Times with the internal  headline Waterboarding Is Inhumane—which is not what the author said in his article. He said it was inhuman. . . . According to the O xford English Dictionary, inhumane in its modern use is a word of milder meaning than inhuman.  Ã‚  Accordingly a prohibition on inhumane conduct is much more demanding than a prohibition on inhuman  conduct. (Jeremy Waldron,  Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs: Philosophy for the White House. Oxford University Press, 2010)Inhuman and inhumane overlap in meaning to such an extent that it is impossible to sustain a distinction in their use. In general, inhuman refers to the characteristic of a person or action, whereas inhumane considers the same characteristic rather more in relation to the effect or the consequences of the action on the sufferer. (Chambers 21 Century Dictionary, rev. ed. Chambers Harrap, 2001) Practice A great deal of irresponsibility, selfishness, and _____ behavior hides behind the pervasive myth that all cats are actually wild animals.The rebel leader was accused of committing _____ acts of terrorism, which included the murdering and butchering of countless women and children. Answers to Practice Exercises: Inhuman and Inhumane (a) A great deal of irresponsibility, selfishness, and inhumane behavior hides behind the pervasive myth that all cats are actually wild animals.(b) The rebel leader was accused of committing inhuman acts of terrorism, which included the murdering and butchering of countless women and children. Glossary of Usage: Index of Commonly Confused Words

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Why Do Scams Occur in India - 968 Words

India is growing well, growing well in all terms, like strong economy, great infrastructure, top businessmen, more number of Indians in forbes richest people list, technology, education, strong media, politics on the positive side and when we looking into the worrying part comes big scams, curruption, etc. We are hearing about new scams almost every week these days and interestingly most of these scams are picked up by the media rather than any of our proud investigating agencies or people who are responsible to monitor our financial activities. Billions of dollars are deposited by many Indians in the Swiss banks which are illegal. Do we have any idea of what is volume of Indian economy inside these Swiss banks. Are we trying to find it†¦show more content†¦9. Some of the bureaucratic and administrative procedures are redundant. This coupled with less automation and transparency provides employment through corruption. 10. Use of electronic voting machines, with no clue/acknowledgement of whom the citizen has voted. This makes it easy for the politicians to manipulate votes. The government instead projects India as a software giant, but sadly all we are doing is demanding outsourcing of public sector department/governance work of the developed countries. 11. Intentional Collapse of democratic and civil institutions by policy makers, which entertains corruption to be associated to power by placing corrupted or subservient persons at important decision making points in the system. 12. The absence of autonomous institutions with responsibility, accountability and transparency combined with way too many people in positions with discretionary powers and no recall option of people in power is a sticking point in containing corruption. 13. Clear cut separation of the three divisions of the constitution i.e. executive, judiciary and the legislature, which would minimize corruption and improve quality of service and performance. 14. There are far too many criminals and thugs in the system that has converted the police, political and judicial systems into legalized criminal networks. These systems have become criminal networks rather than citizen friendly networks that assist in providing goodShow MoreRelatedBusiness Report : Ethical And Management1743 Words   |  7 PagesEXPLOITING ‘NON-EMPLOYEES’ 3 THE FREE SHIFT SCAM 4 3.2 MANAGEMENT ISSUES 5 WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY 5 HUMAN SKILLS 5 3.3 EMPLOYING AND MANAGING CULTURE AND DIVERSITY 7 LEARNING ORGANISATION 7 AWARENESS 7 MOTHERS IN THE WORKFORCE 7 AGEING WORKFORCE 8 4.0 CONCLUSION 9 5.0 REFERENCES 10 2.0 INTRODUCTION This report will go into detail about ethical and management issues at 7-Eleven alongside the exploitation of ‘non-workers’ and the issues in China and India. This report also provides detail regardingRead MoreScams and Fraud in Stock Market5370 Words   |  22 Pages| 5 | 5. | Definition of scam | 7 | 6. | When stock fraud occurs | 8 | 7. | Financial statement fraud | 10 | 8. | Features of security scam | 12 | 9. | How to spot stock scams | 13 | 10. | Avoiding stock market fraud amp; scams | 14 | 11. | Indicators for scams | 15 | 12. | Top 10 stock market scams | 16 | 13. | Top 10 scamster of India | 20 | 14. | Conclusion | Read MoreThe Growing Problem of White Collar Crimes in India19963 Words   |  80 PagesThe Growing Problem of White Collar Crimes in India â€Å"The practitioners of evil, the hoarders, the profiteers, the black marketers and speculators are the worst enemies of our society. They have to be dealt with sternly, however well placed important and influential they may be; if we acquiesce in wrongdoing, people will lose faith in us†- Dr Radhakrishnan Methodology The research methodology used for the present research article is traditional DoctrinalRead MoreOrganizational Fraud9733 Words   |  39 Pageshow true!!!!! Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 7 2. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 8 3. DEFINING FRAUD 8 3.1 Types of fraud 8 3.2 Legal Elements of Fraud 9 3.3 How big is the problem? 10 3.4 Who are the perpetrators? 10 3.5 Why do people commit organizational fraud? 11 3.5.1 Motivation 11 3.5.2 Opportunity 11 3.5.3 Rationalization 11 3.6 Red Flags of Organizational Frauds 11 3.6.1. Structural red flags 11 3.6.2. Personnel red flags 12 Read MoreAnti Corruption Watchdog Transparency International Ranks The National Perception Of Corruption2507 Words   |  11 Pagesservices, feeding inequality and injustice and discouraging foreign aid and investment. Corruption is rampant in India, as it has taken a prevalent role of Indian politics and bureaucracy. Corruption in India has been one of the most interesting and discussed problems in modern political history. Anti-corruption watchdog Transparency International ranks the national perception of corruption in India to be 85th in the world out of 175 positions, indicating that India’s governance is corrupt and isn’t accountableRead More1) Various Federal Agencies Impact Marketing Activities.Research1605 Words   |  7 Pagesagency). Federal Trade Commission: The Federal Trade Commission is an agency of the United States government that works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair business practices. They also provide information to help consumers’ stop, and avoid scams and fraud. The FTC has an impact in the economy, because its purpose is to help the US maintain a more stable market and economy by helping customers and keeping a more accurate information of product, in aspects such quality, prices, efficiency andRead MoreFrauds in Insurance11958 Words   |  48 Pagesalso associated with many risks. There are number of frauds taking place in the insurance sector. People have to be very cautious while taking an insurance policy. Insurance is a federal subject in India. It is a subject matter of solicitation. The legislations that deal with insurance business in India are Insurance Act, 1938 and Insurance Regulatory amp; Development Authority Act (IRDA), 1999. The hypothesis is that THIS PROJECT SCANS THE RISKY NATURE OF INSURANCE WITH REFERENCE TO VARIOUS TYPESRead MoreIncreasing Crimes7023 Words   |  29 PagesINCREASING CRIMES/SUICIDES AMONG THE YOUTH OF INDIA. INCREASING CRIME RATES AMONG THE YOUTH IN INDIA. Introduction: Open any newspaper or tune into any news channel and you can be pretty sure to stumble upon crimes of all sorts ranging from petty thefts to dacoity, murder, terrorism, sexual crimes and the like. The statistics show that the miscreants have been found quite focused and determined at their jobs. In India for instance, as per the National Crime Records Bureau, incidences of crimeRead MoreAnalyzing The Stock Market Of Indi An Overview Of The Financial Crisis3164 Words   |  13 Pages ANALYSING THE STOCK MARKET IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS MACRO ECONOMIC PAPER PRESENTED BY SAHITA GHOSH SOUMITA DE DEVADYUTI NAG SHRESHTH SAXENA ABSTRACT The global financial crisis of 2008 was the most severe financial crisis that the world had experienced since The Great Depression of 1930s. Due to the recession, the Foreign Institutional Investors (FII’s) had disinvested in the Indian market to meet their commitments abroad. This had lead to an increase in the supplyRead MoreEnron - Ask Why?2902 Words   |  12 PagesEnron Ââ€" Ask Why? How Unethical and Illegal Behavior Ruined Lives Brief History of Enron Enron was an energy company based in Houston, Texas that dealt with the energy trade on an international and domestic basis. Enron formed in 1985 when Houston Natural Gas merged with InterNorth. After several years of international and domestic expansion involving complicated deals and contracts, Enron became billions of dollars in debt. All of this debt was concealed from shareholders through partnerships

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Chapter 1 Free Essays

CHAPTER OVERVIEW 1. 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents preliminary discussions about decision that include short overview, relationship between decision and theoretical question with examples and theories or approach of decision as critical parts in discussing the decision subject. The goal of this presentation is the nurture of firm understanding on the essential tenets about decision. We will write a custom essay sample on Chapter 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2. 1 OVERVIEW OF DECISION THEORY In the simplest term, Decision Theory (DT) is theory about decisions. Academic discussion about decision theory is critical due to that there exist many theories about decision. Knowing all the theories that underlying the decision made would enable one to at least:- realize the principle and methodological one follows, mechanisms and supports required for that principle and reach into a justifiable and firm decision. Within the decision theory, there are normative and descriptive theories or approaches with prescriptive appears as variation of normative theory. The variety of ways to conceptualizing and looking at decisions yield many different research cultures and traditions. Some are heavily rely on mathematics, some explore psychological dimensions and others might focus on the methodological aspects of decision. 3. 1 DECISIONS AND THEORETICAL QUESTION ABOUT DECISION A decision is a resolution that one chooses from a variety of alternatives. Many formal conceptual definitions for decision are available. Examples are; i. a position arrived at after consideration ii. the identification of and commitment to a course of action iii. decision relates to the activity – to decide – as the final point f decision making process that has involved complex processes of problem solving From all these definitions, we learn that decision is stem from some theoretical questions or there must be some theoretical questions in the ground prior to making decision. In this sense, the theoretical questions are problem that requires resolution. The relationship between the decision and theoretical questions is inevitable since there would be no decision without p roblem. The following propositions are examples of theoretical problems and the decisions to all these propositions are relative. What would I dress to lecture today? The decision made would depend on the frequent use of apparel, availability and readiness and perhaps suitability with activities to be conducted in the lecture session. Which restaurant would I go for lunch this afternoon? The decision might depend on the time available, attraction of dishes or other external influences such as colleagues or weather. Should I purchase imported or local car? Issues such as pride, price and value, maintenance, loan facility and other considerations will significantly influenced the purchasing decision. In our everyday’s life, child or adult, man or woman, we face a series of heavy or light problems that seek for or involve decision. In this sense, theorizing about decision can be thought as theorizing about our daily activities. However, we limit decision theory to include those that worth attended and unstructured or ill-structured; and exclude those are straight forward and structured. This limitation led by that in any unstructured situations or problems, there exist a set of alternatives to choose from and one chooses in a systematic way, not in random. The selection is often based on goal directed activities, and hence decision theory is concerned with goal-directed behavior in the presence of options. Decision theory has two goals i. e to describe how agents do make decisions (descriptive decision theory) and to prescribe how agents should make decisions (prescriptive decision theory). A third branch of decision theory, normative decision theory, tries to describe how a hypothetical, infinitely intelligent being would make decisions. 4. 1 NORMATIVE THEORY A normative decision theory is a theory about how decisions would be made. In this theory, the norms or standard practice that a decision maker follows and acts in reaching a resolution is critical. It addresses the activities in making decision which involve some standard processes. Normative decision theory seeks to provide an axiomatic, consistent basis for decision making. Most of decision theory and/or analysis said to be normative or prescriptive rather than descriptive. It concerns with what people should do, with emphasis on procedural dimension. Thus the tasks of identifying the best decision to take, assuming an ideal decision taker who is fully informed, ability to compute with perfect accuracy and fully rational would be vital in this theory. 5. 1 DESCRIPTIVE THEORY Descriptive decision theory attempts to explain what people actually do and what people are observed to do when making decision. In another word it explains the processes that must be going through by a decision maker. In this sense, descriptive theory attempts to know how decisions are made and explains what exactly occurs in human cognitive when they make decision. In a descriptive study, the decision model is determined by the user’s behavior, and the goal is to obtain an accurate model of the user’s actual decision process. Descriptive approach requires a detailed and thorough understanding of the task that faces the decision maker. It is as important to understand the decision maker’s task, or â€Å"environment,† as it is to understand how she mentally processes information. Due to that descriptive theory is more heading toward cognitive thinking, reasoning and mental activities, it is capable to nurture a new idea, concept and knowledge which would assist in improvement of decision making. In this way, descriptive theory concerned with describing human judgment and decision making in a scientific way. Descriptive models are evaluated according to their ability to reproduce the behavior of the decision maker. As descriptive theory deals with what people actually do and what people are observe to do, it simply an observation and description of â€Å"what happens† when people make decision. For example, we might observe people who are speaking some language, and simply record what they say and try to determine the rules, if any, that determine what they say; perhaps they sometimes use double-negatives, like ‘I don’t want no eggs’. In such a case, we would simply observe what they do, and try to account for why it is they are doing that. This would be a descriptive grammar. In the context of ethics, we might undertake a descriptive ethical enquiry, trying to determine the principles that some person or group of people use when making their morally relevant decisions: perhaps they do whatever they feel like, or perhaps they do what they think will lead to the greatest overall happiness of people. Whatever the details, the descriptive task would simply seek to determine what ethical principles, if any, are in fact being used by some person or group in their morally relevant behavior. 6. 1CONCLUSION This chapter introduces students to the tenets of DT that includes conceptual definition of DT, the decision and theoretical question about decision and the three major theories of decision i. e normative, descriptive and prescriptive. DT is a body of knowledge and related analytical techniques designed to help a decision maker choose among a set of alternatives in light of their possible consequences. DT is applicable to conditions of certainty, risk, or uncertainty. In general, DT deals with human decision making in the extent of insufficient information and incomplete control over events. DT involves two entities i. e decision maker and an arbitrary nature. The decision maker performs analyses and cognitively chooses some courses of action in an optimal fashion. In this way DT lead to discussion of at least normative and descriptive theories or approaches that may facilitate decision maker in making decision. Normative theory is explanation about how decisions would be made. Descriptive theory is an explanation what people actually do and what people are observed to do when making decision. Prescriptive theory is articulation of the correct principles that people ought to apply when making decision. POINT TO PONDER ? Main goal of decision theory is deciding which action to take ? Normative Theory tries to describe how a hypothetical, infinitely intelligent being would make decisions ? reasonably accurate account of how individuals actually make decisions under uncertainty ? Both normative and descriptive theories have significant role in decision making ACTIVITIES Student should further explore; †¢ The concept of decision theory †¢ The realist, optimist, pessimist and opportunist views of decision †¢ More conceptual definition of decision from the vast literature of DM †¢ The concept of structured problem †¢ The concept of unstructured/Ill-Structured Problem †¢ The Concept of Normative Theory †¢ The normative aspect of decision theory †¢ The Concept of Descriptive Theory †¢ The descriptive aspect of decision theory STUDY QUESTIONS PART A: DEFINITION Please define the following terms: 1. Decision Theory 2. Decision 3. Theoretical Question 4. Normative Theory 5. Descriptive Theory PART B: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions: 1. Discuss the importance of decision theory. 2. How decision relate to our everyday’s life? 3. Discuss the normative approach of decision theory with examples. 4. Discuss the descriptive approach with examples. 5. Discuss the prescriptive approach with examples. FURTHER READING Bekker, H. , Thornton, J. G. , Airey, C. M. , Connelly, J. , Hewison, J. , Robinson, M. B. , Lilleyman, J. , MacIntosh, M. , Maule, A. J. , Michie, S. , Pearman, A. D. , (1999). Informed decision making: an annotated bibliography and systematic review. Health Technology Assessment, 3(1). Bell, D. E, Raiffa, H Tversky, A. (1995) Decision making: descriptive, normative and prescriptive interactions, USA: Cambridge University Press. Clemen, R. (1996). Making Hard Decisions: An Introduction to Decision Analysis, 2nd edition. Belmont CA: Duxbury Press. Doerr, K. H. Mitchell T. R. , (1998). The Consequences of Role-conferred Bias and Base-rate Neglect, Decision Sciences Journal,   29(2)pp. 461-478 Grant, S and Van Zandt, T. (2008). Expected Utility Theory, In P. Anand, P. Pattanaik and C. Puppe (Eds), Handbook of Rational and Social Choice, Oxford University Press. Hansson, S. O. (1994). Decision Theory : A Brief Introduction. Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Stockholm. Keefer, D. L, Kirkwood, C. W. and Corner, J. L, (2004). Perspective on Decision Analysis Applications, 1990–2001, Decision Analysis, 1(1) pp. 4–22 Lichenstein, S. , Slovic, P. (2006). The Construction of Preference. New York: Cambridge University Press. Mautner, T. (Ed) (1999). The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Penguin. Russo, J. E. and Carlson, K. A. 2002. Individual Decision-making. In: Weitz, , Wensley, (Eds. ), Handbook of Marketing, Sage, London, pp 371-408. Stewart, T. R. (1997). Forecast value: Descriptive decision studies. In R. W. Katz A. H. Murphy (Eds. ), Economic value of weather and climate forecasts (pp. 147-181). New York: Cambridge University Press. Thagard, P. (2001. How to make decisions: Coherence, emotion, and practical inference. In E. Millgram (Ed. ), Varieties of practical inference . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp355-371 Tupara, H. (2008). Facilitating functional decision making in midwifery: lessons from decision theory. New Zealand College of Midwives Journal, Apr 1, 2008. ———————– 1 INTRODUCTION TO DECISION THEORY Introduction to Decision Theory Overview of decision theory Theoretical questions about decisions Normative approach Descriptive approach LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Understand the concept of Decision Theory (DT) 2. Understand issues about the nature of decisions 3. Describe the concept of normative approach of DT 4. Describe the concept of descriptive approach of DT How to cite Chapter 1, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Facing Racism and Prejudice Essay Example For Students

Facing Racism and Prejudice Essay I had never felt so out of place or uncomfortable with the color of my skin. Normally, a person’s piercing stare or gaze would not affect me, and normally would be shrugged off just as when someone mentions an insult or snide remark. Then at other times, the color of your skin can even frighten someone else because of their racial misconceptions or biased views on a certain race. Racial prejudice is a negative aspect of society that has unfavorably affected me. I often wonder if it could it be something done by myself to cause this reaction or maybe my body language which would cause the other person to become uneasy around me. Or maybe it is the other individuals upbringing of the â€Å"white is right† motto which leads them to presume me as an unmannered and uneducated minority. It almost seems as if it were yesterday when racial prejudice was bestowed upon me. The other individual was dressed in a fine wardrobe which consisted of high end designer denim jeans, and a fine solid silver silk shirt which had a strong masculine scent from the Giorgio Armani cologne he wore. As I walked ever closer to him browsing the fine designer store aisles it seemed apparent to me that he was appalled at the sight of my shopping in the same store as he. Trying my hardest to fit in with the surrounding individuals and upper social class of the location, my wardrobe consisted of dark denim blue jeans, and a long sleeved striped dress shirt with a splash of sweet smelling cologne. To no avail this did not alter his perception on how he viewed me, instead he just stared intently as if to intimidate or make me feel uncomfortable. Which made me realize how difficult minorities had it back in the time period of segregation when they were treated similar just as a mere object, and not as a person with emotions. Eventually it became unbearable being in this predicament to the point where instead of causing a ruckus and being rude with this individual as he was with me. I ended up leaving the high end department store disheartened and embarrassed because of the color of my skin. Another type of situation that had happened to me was involving racial fear it was on a hot Texas summer day when this predicament had happened involving some friends myself and a middle aged white couple. Feeling adventurous and being off for spring break on my senior year of high school I ended up going on a hiking trip with a few friends. Everything seemed to be working out perfectly from the beautiful breeze and relative cooler than normal spring temperature we had on that day. To the amount of people whom were on the hiking trail that particular day in March which made everything seem to work together flawlessly. As we sauntered up the steep rocky trail we noticed a Caucasian couple who kept looking back at us fearfully as if we were going to harm them. We continued on our way not really paying attention to the couple’s uneasiness of us gaining distance on them and drawing ever closer to them on the hiking trail. Finally without realizing it we were within 5 feet or so from the couple. They seemed fearful of three young Hispanic teens dressed in casual outdoor clothing. To the average person three friends dressed in cargo shorts and t-shirts would not strike fear into their heart as it seemed to instill into this particular couple. As we were about to pass the couple on the descent from the trail back down to conclude our trek. We noticed that the Caucasian male had pulled out a can of pepper spray possibly because of being fearful from seeing a group of three young Hispanic males approaching him. .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .postImageUrl , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:hover , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:visited , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:active { border:0!important; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:active , .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5 .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6f4a025f5ab5743f67b217910be366d5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The planets EssayI tried to defuse the situation by greeting the couple and by possibly initiating a conversation to lower the couples guard toward us and possibly eliminate their fearfulness of us. Instead all I did was make the situation worse and ended up angering the fearful couple which lead to a horrible experience and ruined trip. I could adhere to the racial remarks and, allow it to keep me downhearted and deter me from pursuing a successful life or achieving personal goals. Alternatively the viewpoint of treat others as they treat you could be used easily on instances where prejudice is bestowed upon me. As gleefully as it may sound to do the same that would make it seem as if they had gotten the best of me. Emotionally it is hard to remain calm when placed in the uncanniness of situations involving racial prejudice. Instead of pondering on the negativity of the situation I have tried to turn the negativity of prejudice into a positive. My personal vendetta has been to prove by my actions that a minority can succeed in today’s society and become educated with a successful career and lifestyle. For this reason my pursuit of attaining a Bachelor Degree in Business will be a personal achievement and accomplishment that will allow me to show that a person’s skin color does not define their achievements or goals in life. Anything in life can be achieved or accomplished with hard work and dedication no matter what color your skin is. This was something proved by Dr. Martin Luther King who was a very well respected minority whom had a dream and goal in mind. He was able to overcome many obstacles and racial prejudice in his life, and in essence turn negativity into a positive during his era when he was battling racial prejudice by angry white men and women. Even though racism is wrong, it is still being practiced, in this country and in others. The origins are obscure, but it most likely had something to do with a poor or ill experience upbringing involving another race. Our enlightened society has more discernment than this, and we know that a person is neither good nor bad depending on the color of their skin.